Sri Lanka is a small island in the Indian Ocean with approximately 65,000 sq.km. in extent. This small tropical island has a high bio diversity. Since it is isolated from other countries this island has a high endemicity among its life forms. Out of the 3368 species of flowering plants 879 species are endemics, comparatively 57 out of 314 ferns are endemics.
There is a wide array of beautiful wild flowers in the country which include more than 250 species of orchids. Among this vegetation there are plants with medicinal value.
Scientists believe that in forests like Singharaja, Knuckles and Peak wilderness has plants yet undiscovered.
Sri Lanka has more than 430 species of migratory and resident birds with 33 endemics (with the new Owl). Most of the migratory birds can be found in the dry zone of the country in very large numbers while most of the endemics are in the wet zone. Sri Lanka consists of a good network of National Parks, sanctuaries, forest reserves forest monasteries, home gardens and some plantations providing excellent birding opportunities.
Out of the 134 species of mammals 14 are endemics to the country. Asian elephants, Leopards, Deer species, Slender Loris, Sloth Bear and Monkey species are among the interesting mammals. Most of the large mammals are common in the dry zone of the country.
The Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka consists of large number of marine mammal species which includes Whales & Dolphins.
There are about 174 species of reptiles out of which 81 species are endemic to the country. Five species out of the eight marine turtle species are found in Sri Lanka, these turtles nest on our shores. Sri Lanka is an amphibian hot spot, even as diverse as Costa Rica. Studies claim of more than 250 species of amphibians in the country
There are 243 known species of Butterflies with 20 endemic to the country. During certain months of the year one can observe butterfly migration consisting of many species.